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Chariots of the Gods? If we instead represent this detail with a bump map, the surface geometry can become much simpler, and the detail is represented as a texture which modulates how light reflects off the surface. This is something modern graphics hardware can do extremely fast.

Your metal surface can now be a low-poly flat plane, and the screws, rivets, grooves and scratches will catch the light and appear to have depth because of the texture. In modern game development art pipelines, artists will use their 3D modelling applications to generate normal maps based on very high resolution source models. The normal maps are then mapped onto a lower-resolution game-ready version of the model, so that the original high-resolution detail is rendered using the normalmap. Bump mapping is a relatively old graphics technique, but is still one of the core methods required to create detailed realistic realtime graphics.

Bump Maps are also commonly referred to as Normal Maps or Height Maps , however these terms have slightly different meanings which will be explained below. Perhaps the most basic example would be a model where each surface polygon is lit simply according to the surface angles relative to the light. In the image above, the left cylinder has basic flat shading, and each polygon is shaded according to its relative angle to the light source.

Here are the same two cylinders, with their wireframe mesh The main graphics primitive of Unity. Meshes make up a large part of your 3D worlds. Unity supports triangulated or Quadrangulated polygon meshes. Nurbs, Nurms, Subdiv surfaces must be converted to polygons.

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More info See in Glossary visible:. The model on the right has the same number of polygons as the model on the left, however the shading appears smooth - the lighting across the polygons gives the appearance of a curved surface. Why is this? The reason is that the surface normal at each point used for reflecting light gradually varies across the width of the polygon, so that for any given point on the surface, the light bounces as if that surface was curved and not the flat constant polygon that it really is.

Viewed as a 2D diagram, three of the surface polygons around the outside of the flat-shaded cylinder would look like this:. The surface normals are represented by the orange arrows. These are the values used to calculate how light reflects off the surface, so you can see that light will respond the same across the length of each polygon, because the surface normals point in the same direction.

For the smooth shaded cylinder however, the surface normals vary across the flat polygons, as represented here:. The normal directions gradually change across the flat polygon surface, so that the shading across the surface gives the impression of a smooth curve as represented by the greeen line. This does not affect the actual polygonal nature of the mesh, only how the lighting is calculated on the flat surfaces.

This apparent curved surface is not really present, and viewing the faces at glancing angles will reveal the true nature of the flat polygons, however from most viewing angles the cylinder appears to have a smooth curved surface. Using this basic smooth shading, the data determining the normal direction is actually only stored per vertex , so the changing values across the surface are interpolated from one vertex to the next. In the diagram above, the red arrows indicate the stored normal direction at each vertex, and the orange arrows indicate examples of the interpolated normal directions across the area of the polygon.

Normal mapping takes this modification of surface normals one step further, by using a texture to store information about how to modify the surface normals across the model. A normal map is an image texture mapped to the surface of a model, similar to regular colour textures, however each pixel The smallest unit in a computer image. Pixel size depends on your screen resolution.

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Pixel lighting is calculated at every screen pixel. In this diagram, which is again a 2D representation of three polygons on the surface of a 3D model, each orange arrow corresponds to a pixel in the normalmap texture. Below, is a single-pixel slice of a normalmap texture. In the centre, you can see the normals have been modified, giving the appearance of a couple of bumps on the surface of the polygon. These bumps would only be apparent due to the way lighting appears on the surface, because these modified normals are used in the lighting calculations.

This is a simple normal map, containing the bump information for some raised rectangles and text. This normal map can be imported into Unity and placed into Normal Map slot of the Standard Shader A built-in shader for rendering real-world objects such as stone, wood, glass, plastic and metal.

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Supports a wide range of shader types and combinations. More info See in Glossary. When combined in a material with a colour map the Albedo map and applied to the surface of of the cylinder mesh above, the result looks like this:. Again, this does not affect the actual polygonal nature of the mesh, only how the lighting is calculated on the surfaces. This apparent raised lettering and shapes on the surface are not really present, and viewing the faces at glancing angles will reveal the true nature of the flat surface, however from most viewing angles the cylinder now appears to have embossed detail raised off the surface.

Commonly, Normal Maps are produced by 3D or Texture artists in conjunction with the model or textures they are producing, and they often mirror the layout and contents of the Albedo map. A year passed and sketchy communications still gave no definitive answer. Jack and Beth managed to gather their family together in a short time.

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